Holes and scratches
This is pre-processing step for noise reduction. Every pixel with Ink bit set, is tested for neibours with Paper bit set, like in  Conway's Game of Life . If six or more bits are Paper, then that Ink is replaced with Paper. Same is with opposite situation (Paper surrounded with 6 or more Inks is replaced with Ink). So the small errors are corrected.

The ball on the photo is relatively new, so it is hard to see the effect of this step here.



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0. Home
H. Hardware
L. Lighting
1. Frame fetch
2. Ball locate
3. Stretching
4. Unsharp mask
5. Component selection
6. Holes and scratches
7. Component shrink
8. Invert selection
9. Component list
10. Select best circle
11. Angle detection
12. Rotate selected
13. Select broad lines
14. Selected components list
15. Components scaling
16. Histogram
17. MSE and voting
C. Conclusion